Perspectives on Global Conflict: World War II: Endgames in Europe 1944 – 1945 *Online* *NEW*

After years of struggle the Allies began to squeeze Nazi Germany between two fronts, and were pushing across the Pacific ever closer to the shores of Japan. Yet despite the Allied advantage in human and material resources and technology, defeating the Axis powers became a bloodier affair as the years dragged on from 1943 until 1945. This dark prospect sometimes demoralized the home-front public, despite the promise of final victory for the Allies. On the other side, the Axis powers fought all the more desperately. So we have to consider why Germany, Japan and Italy kept fighting for so long. What gave their people a possible hope of success even as Allied bombing grew worse and worse? Why didn’t the German and Japanese people overthrow their dictators like Italy did in 1943? Was it propaganda? Was it the extremist regime’s ability to control the state security apparatus? Or was it a fatalistic “us or them” situation that had less to do with politics than we imagine? This seminar will explore this still controversial and difficult topic.
This seminar is part of an eight seminar series. Pick and choose from the topics of this eight-seminar series or register for all. Each seminar includes a lecture and discussion. Maps, references and handouts will be provided for each seminar.
Instructor: Anatole Sykley



Start Date

August 16, 2022









Tuesday, 3-5:30pm. Aug. 16

This class will meet online using Zoom. The Zoom link and information on how to join will be emailed to you. Please also check your spam folder.
If you register 12 hours or less before the class begins or after the start date, please contact for the link.

Instructors: Anatole Sykley


Anatole Sykley

Anatole Sykley is an independent scholar and historian. He transitioned to his new career after a career in high tech and early internet technology companies in Cambridge and the Boston area finishing off in telecommunications. A graduate of La Trobe University with degrees in Physics, Applied Math and Computer Science. As an ongoing Harvard Extension School student, Anatole is working on his history qualifications. Anatole is a member of Organization of American Historians, World War I Historical Society, World War I Centennial Commission (Massachusetts). Anatole teaches history, focussed on World War I and the early 20th century era, but also has given courses and seminars on current affairs, Eastern European history, Medieval History as well as selected topics in the History of Science, in Computers and Cryptography, at several Adult Education programs in the Cambridge, Boston, Brookline area, as well as organizing custom seminars for reading groups, local libraries and senior centers all over Eastern Massachusetts. Anatole has also led tours of World War I battlefields in France and Belgium, as well as given history tours of Boston. Anatole also supplements his career by teaching ESL courses at local education programs.